Planting too early or too deep are two of the main causes of sorghum stand problems. Sorghum yield and forage quality are maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content. By Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Extension crop production and cropping systems specialist. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. On droughty, shallow soils, however, forage sorghum yields may be more consistent than corn. Hybrids can be fertile and produce grain yields comparable to grain sorghum, or they can be sterile and produce no grain. Questionable forage can be tested for prussic acid (HCN) at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg (717-787-8808). Insects are generally not a problem on forage sorghum and no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania. We can get 12 quintals of yield per acre on an average basis. Sorghum for syrup can be planted with a corn planter or with a grain drill at a rate of 10 to 15 lb/acre. Sorghum will continue to grow when adjacent corn fields are exhibiting leaf rolling due to water stress. If moisture stress becomes severe, sorghum will become dormant until the stress is relieved. Forage sorghum is also particularly well suited to some classes of livestock, such as dairy heifers and dry cows. Seeding rates range from about 60,000 to 80,000 seeds per acre. These animals have lower energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration. Nitrates can be a problem with forage sorghum as they are with corn silage, but again this is rare and usually associated with harvesting a heavily manured or fertilized crop during or immediately following a severe stress such as a drought. The ensiling process reduces nitrate content in the silage. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. Forage sorghum has performed well in no-till systems when conditions are favorable in the seed zone. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. 2550. in sandy soil. Find Out . Yield per Acre (Quintal) 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10 - 11 No. The annual area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the annual production between 8 and 10 million tonnes. Kansas farmer Kimberly Gamble took first place in the Irrigated West category at 223.51 bpa. Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. The regrowth from plants killed by a frost is particularly high in prussic acid content, but this regrowth is rare in Pennsylvania. This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid concerns, and may result in forage quality reductions. Since forage sorghum is adapted to warm conditions, early season growth is also slow compared to corn. Even when the reduced value of forage sorghum silage is considered, forage sorghum can be more profitable than corn in some situations (Table 3). I look forward to meeting each one at the upcoming Commodity Classic,” said NSP board of directors Chairman Don Bloss. Some growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania have utilized a double-crop rotation to produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically. Seed rate and Sowing in Sorghum or Jowar Farming:- Seed rate of 35-40 kg per hectare is well enough and sowing should be carried out by drilling @ row-to-row distance of 25 cm. Some evidence indicates that sorghum may utilize N from previous crops such as soybeans more effectively than corn, but this has not been confirmed in Pennsylvania. Here, substitution of forage sorghum for corn can make a large difference in the profitability of a silage production enterprise (Table 5). of Farmers 30 50 55 40 20 Consider using a recutter screen if the crop is dry and the grains are hard. It is important to match the traits of the hybrid to the production situation and the desired use of the crop. The feed value (TDN) of sorghum silage per acre is about 90% that of corn silage. Commodity Planted All Purpose Acres Harvested Acres Yield Production Price per Unit Value of Production in Dollars; CORN: CORN, GRAIN: 3,870,000: 144 BU / ACRE In the world of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines. Be aware of the potential for prussic acid poisoning or nitrate toxicity with forage sorghum, but also realize that these problems are not normally a concern when sorghum is harvested for silage. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Forage sorghum can be a profitable alternative crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the right situations. “When corn and grain sorghum prices are equal, grain sorghum is a more profitable crop to grow until corn yields exceed 141 bushels per acre,” Staggenborg says. Forage sorghum is best utilized as a silage crop, although it can be grazed or cut for hay if managed appropriately. Harvesting and storing the grain as a high-moisture product improves the feed efficiency, as does processing the grain in a roller mill. Assume that 80 percent of the seeds planted will emerge. For instance, forage sorghum is cheaper to produce, has comparable yields, but has slightly lower forage quality when compared to corn for silage. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Sorghum (grain) bushels 80 - 140 Sorghum (silage) wet tons 12-18 Soybeans bushels 25-55 Sweet Potatoes cwt A … Converting into the continuous classes, we get, Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms, Chapter 6: Statistics - Practice Set 6.4 [Page 153], Balbharati Mathematics 1 Algebra 10th Standard SSC Maharashtra State Board, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Arts, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Commerce, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Science, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 10, Maharashtra State Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Arts, Maharashtra State Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Commerce, Maharashtra State Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Science, Maharashtra State Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 10, CISCE ICSE / ISC Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Arts, CISCE ICSE / ISC Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Commerce, CISCE ICSE / ISC Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 12 Science, CISCE ICSE / ISC Board Previous Year Question Paper With Solution for Class 10, SSC (Marathi Semi-English) 10th Standard [इयत्ता १० वी] Maharashtra State Board, SSC (English Medium) 10th Standard Board Exam Maharashtra State Board. In many Pennsylvania situations, corn silage will produce high yields of a high quality forage and is a preferred silage crop compared to forage sorghum. Why do we need this? The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P 2 O 5, and 120 pounds of K 2 O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Maturity is an important consideration for the medium-season and short-season areas of Pennsylvania. Looking to achieve an industrial level, Heckemeyer said he has the capacity to bottle or sell by truck load, giving him the option to service a number of markets. km) Download. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. USDA forecasts this year's average sorghum farm price at $3.25 per bushel. The Table Below Shows the Yield of Jowar per Acre. National Sorghum Producers has announced the winners of the 2019 NSP Yield Contest. Starter fertilizers similar to those used for corn can be used with forage sorghum when planted with a row planter, but if the crop is drilled they should be avoided to prevent starter fertilizer injury. Forage sorghums have even been grown successfully in short-season areas of Pennsylvania where 95-day corn is considered full season. Some herbicide products are only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain. Sorghum maturity is rated either as full, medium, and early or by the days needed to flower. Grain sorghum will produce more grain per inch of moisture up to about 24 inches, compared with corn. It is used for human consumption, fodder animal feed, and for the production of starch, adhesive, paper, etc. This allows any prussic acid formed to dissipate before harvesting. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. Forage sorghums are also adapted to farms that experience considerable deer damage to corn. Research indicates that 3 inches of water are saved in the soil profile when weeds are controlled in a timely manner after the winter wheat harvest. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. Producer yields are highlighted in five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the U.S. 30,600. The main yield-driving factors are: Number of plants, Number of tillers per plant, Total number of seeds per head, and; Seeds per pound. Total income from 1 acre Sorghum cultivation: The minimum support price for Sorghum for the year 2018-19 is Rs. Like corn, forage sorghum yields increase with narrower rows. Yield potential and economics of grain sorghum must be compared to corn to determine whether or not grain sorghum offers an advantage. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Severe drought stress or cool, late season temperatures may delay the maturity of the crop. Prepared by Gregory W. Roth, associate professor of agronomy, and Jayson K. Harper, associate professor of agricultural economics. Be sure to request the correct safener for the herbicide you plan to use. The given classes are not continuous. Consult the Penn State Agronomy Guide for the latest weed control recommendations. On very droughty soils, or if subsoil moisture is very low, grain sorghum may out yield corn. Forage sorghum has higher temperature requirements than corn. Forage sorghums typically have slightly lower energy values than corn silage, but are similar in protein. Occasionally, in good years, forage sorghum production may exceed silage storage capabilities on the farm. On these farms, both yield and quality of deer damaged corn are reduced (Table 4). The recommended chop length is 3/8- to ½-inch. Once established, forage sorghum is a competitive crop and will shade many weeds later in the season. Generally, this delayed maturity will not be a major problem if the crop is harvested for silage. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. Fewer herbicides are available for forage sorghum compared to corn, so control of some problem weeds may be a challenge without tillage. This usually occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages. Typical yields in those regions are 100-150 bushels per acre, but Schnell said a good number of producers reported 150-180 bushel per acre yields. Many growers have found that once they develop some experience planting the crop, seeding rates in the low end of this range are adequate. In most areas, yields will be maximized with a mid-May to early June planting date. Forage sorghum is a crop that has a potential under some soil/crop/livestock situations in Pennsylvania. Row Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Width 27,000 41,000 55,000 76,000 38 2,358 2,745 2,635 2,567 2 rows/bed 38 in. For dryland fields, plant populations of 50,000 to 60,000 plants per acre can result in high yields, while irrigated fields should have around 75,000 plants per acre. It is important to read the information on the bag tag to accurately calculate the number of acres each 50-pound bag will plant, based on projected seeds per acre. With these considerations, forage sorghum can be an important crop alternative for livestock farms in Pennsylvania. Data. Only drawback about agriculture is we cannot simply predict the production for an area like we do in factories. Nutrient requirements should be adjusted for previous crop credits and manures. However, yields of TDN (total digestible nutrients) per acre are usually lower from forage sorghums than from corn. Seed broadcasting should be avoided. LUBBOCK, Texas (Dec. 16, 2020) – National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. NEL = net energy of lactation, NEM = net energy of maintenance, and NEG = net energy of gain. National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Smaller seed size and higher temperature requirements for sorghum result in slower emergence and lower seedling vigor compared to corn. This year’s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre. For example, the minimum temperature for sorghum growth is about 60°F and highest yields occur when the mean temperatures during the growing season are between 75°F and 80°F. Grain sorghum yields exceeding 100 bushels per acre have been obtained in Wisconsin (Table 2). Wait four days following a killing frost to harvest forage sorghum. Forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower in energy than corn silage and is similar in protein. Forage sorghum can also be grown in a mixture with corn on such fields. It has less tolerance than corn to cool soil conditions under heavy residue or to soils that may be wet where furrow closure is a problem. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. In addition, the risk of corn rootworm damage to corn following sorghum is low and no rootworm insecticide treatment is required for the corn. Forage sorghum typically dries down slowly. It is important to pay attention to these details to ensure consistent success with forage sorghum. Sorghum or corn popularly knowns as “Jowar” in India. Seed lots often contain about 14,000 to 17,000 seeds per pound, and sorghum emergence is often about 75 percent, so these planting rates will result in plant populations of 85,000 to 150,000 plants per acre. Air planters may require a special drum or plate. Planting depth is 0.75 to 1.25 inches. Net profit from 1 acre Sorghum farming. Jowar is an important Rabi season crop cultivated in around 1.20 lakh acres of land across the state. Generally, forage sorghum silage has 75% to 85% of the energy value of corn silage per unit of dry matter, while other summer annual grasses have 60% to 80% percent of the value of corn silage. Facing weather challenges, economic uncertainty and a challenging year overall, sorghum farmers showed […] Planting should be delayed until soil temperatures reach 65°F at the 2- to 4-inch depth. For sealed silos or large upright silos, consider planting an earlier maturing hybrid or adding a dry feedstuff such as ground ear corn to reach the desired moisture level. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the hybrid. In addition, input costs (Table 2) are lower for forage sorghum so the crop is established with less financial risk. Harvesting drier sorghum can reduce the energy and protein value. Forage sorghum is a large, warm-season, annual grass that is adapted to Pennsylvania and can be grown as a silage crop. Although occasional infestations of aphids can develop in the whorl or on the heads of sorghum, these rarely cause any economic damage. Their rotation involves a winter cereal grain harvested for silage followed by a forage sorghum harvested for silage. Forage sorghum growth can range from 5- to 15-feet tall, depending on the hybrid. Each inch of soil water increases the yield of corn or grain sorghum by approximately 12 bushels. Sorghum growers from 24 states entered to win this year’s National Sorghum Producer Yield Contest, with this year’s top yield at 228.07 bushels per acre. When high nitrate levels are suspected, leave 10 to 12 inches of stalk in the field, because nitrates tend to accumulate in this region of the plant. (DTN photo by … For Heckemeyer, his typical 200 acres of sweet sorghum will yield approximately 200 gallons of syrup per acre in average growing conditions, upwards of 300 and beyond in a good year. Because prussic acid is volatile, it dissipates during the harvesting and ensiling process and is rarely a problem in sorghum silage. Be sure that the herbicides you select are labeled for sorghum harvested for silage. Forage sorghum yields also can be reduced with late planting, although not to the extent yields would be reduced with late-planted corn. Excessive seeding rates can increase the risk of lodging problems. ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. Sorghum, on the other hand ranged from 160 to 140 bushels per acre. Table 2. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P2O5, and 120 pounds of K2O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Sorghum is often planted in 30 inch rows but could be planted in 15 or 20 inch rows to maximize production potential. Sorghum is sensitive to some corn herbicides such as Dual or Lasso, but seed is available that is treated with safeners that allow the use of these herbicides on sorghum. CSV XML EXCEL. Yields were variable in the Panhandle and were impacted by heat and drought, he said, though some acres benefited from spotty rains. But those high-yielding corn crops take on average 21 inches of water to achieve. Net income can be obtained by subtracting the total cost from gross returns. Minnesota research shows little response to planting rates of 20,000 to 80,000 plants/acre for sugar yield. Forage sorghum is most often planted in rows with a corn planter to facilitate harvest, reduce lodging, and permit cultivation for weed control. Read More.. Adapted forage sorghums range from full season in southeastern counties to early maturity in the short-season areas of the state. Show the Data by Histogram. In order to best estimate the yield potential of grain sorghum, we need to understand the main plant components of sorghum yield. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable. Like most crops, forage sorghum responds well to good silage management practices--harvest at the right moisture content for the silo, chop uniformly, fill the silo as quickly as possible, and pack the silage well. Grain sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 to 16,000 seeds per pound, but can range from 9,000 to 22,000 seeds per pound. Soil pH should be maintained above 6.0 with target pH of 6.5. Full-season forage sorghums will not mature in these areas and the crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin. The concern of prussic acid and nitrate poisoning is greatest when sorghum is grazed less that 24 to 30 inches in height, immediately after a killing frost, or on regrowth of sorghum killed by an early frost. This is about 3-4 seeds per foot of row in 30 inch rows and translates into about 5 pounds of seed per acre. A Pennsylvania farmer hit a new dryland yield record in the National Sorghum Producers yield contest. Forage sorghum is a member of the sorghum family and is closely related to grain sorghum, broomcorn, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass. Like other crops, it responds to good management; paying attention to the details of producing forage sorghum will improve the likelihood of success with the crop. A Pennsylvania sorghum grower set a U.S. record for dryland yields with a field that topped out at 245.86 bushels per acre, in the 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. At that price times the average government yield estimate of 73 bushels per acre, sorghum … in medium or heavy soil or 1 1/2 in. However, forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe some attributes of forage sorghum, provide some management recommendations, and describe the potential role of forage sorghum in the forage/livestock systems used on many Pennsylvania farms. But the crop once again proved its impressive versatility this year, after sorghum grower Ella Johnston, of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, set a new U.S. record for dryland sorghum production with a field that hit 245.86 bushels per acre (bpa), in the National Sorghum Producer’s 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. Because of the lower quality of forage sorghum crops compared to corn, they are best used in situations where forage sorghum yields are higher than corn or where livestock energy requirements are less than what is supplied by corn silage. Harvesting at moisture contents higher than 72 percent may cause problems during the ensiling process and will decrease intake by cattle. The seed should not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm depth. Consider the 204.5-bushel-per-acre entry from Greensburg, Kansas, farmers Ki and Kim Gamble, on an irrigated farm featuring Pioneer’s 84G62 hybrid. Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). ... 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And no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania prussic acid problem has been regarded as an crop. Sorghum plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed size and higher temperature requirements for sorghum for! Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre under it ranges 17. Sorghum Producers yield Contest silage followed by a forage sorghum are about 8 to 12 pounds seed. A roller mill large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with crop... Produce grain yields of dryland agriculture help us provide news or event updates your. Are generally not a problem in sorghum silage is higher in energy than corn silage and is particularly noted its... Area like we do in factories are labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested grain!, it dissipates during the ensiling process and is rarely a problem on forage sorghum yields increase narrower. About agriculture is we can not simply predict the production of starch, adhesive paper!

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